Payback Period Learn How to Use & Calculate the Payback Period

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DateNov 7, 2023

Small businesses and large alike tend to focus on projects with a likelihood of faster, more profitable payback. Analysts consider project cash flows, initial investment, and other factors to calculate a capital project’s payback period. Furthermore, the payback analysis fails to consider inflows of cash that occur beyond the payback period, thus failing to compare the overall profitability of one project as compared to another. Since many capital investments provide investment returns over a period of many years, this can be an important consideration.

Management then looks at a variety of metrics in order to obtain complete information. Comparing various profitability metrics for all projects is important when making a well-informed decision. The easiest method to audit and understand is to have all the data in one table and then break out the calculations line by line. Amanda Bellucco-Chatham is an editor, writer, and fact-checker with years of experience researching personal finance topics.

  1. Perhaps an even more important criticism of payback period is that it does not consider the time value of money.
  2. The formula to calculate the payback period of an investment depends on whether the periodic cash inflows from the project are even or uneven.
  3. This target may be different for different projects because higher risk corresponds with higher return thus longer payback period being acceptable for profitable projects.
  4. Generally speaking, an investment can either have a short or a long payback period.
  5. The discounted payback period calculation begins with the -$3,000 cash outlay in the starting period.
  6. The discounted payback period is often used to better account for some of the shortcomings, such as using the present value of future cash flows.

Payback period is the time in which the initial outlay of an investment is expected to be recovered through the cash inflows generated by the investment. The payback period with the shortest payback time is generally regarded as the best one. This is an especially good rule to follow when you must choose between one or more projects or investments. The reason for this is because the longer cash is tied up, the less chance there is for you to invest elsewhere, and grow as a business. Generally speaking, an investment can either have a short or a long payback period.

Decision Rule

The Payback Period shows how long it takes for a business to recoup an investment. This type of analysis allows firms to compare alternative investment opportunities and decide on a project that returns its investment in the shortest time if that criteria is important https://www.wave-accounting.net/ to them. The payback period disregards the time value of money and is determined by counting the number of years it takes to recover the funds invested. For example, if it takes five years to recover the cost of an investment, the payback period is five years.

Pros and Cons of Discounted Payback Period

More specifically, it’s the length of time it takes a project to reach a break-even point. The breakeven point is the level at which the costs of production equal the revenue for a product or service. Payback period doesn’t take into consideration the time value of money and therefore may not present the true picture when it comes to evaluating cash flows of a project.

What is the Payback Period?

This method also does not take into account other factors such as risk, financing or any other considerations that come into play with certain investments. For example, if you add in the economic lives of the two machines, you could get a very different answer if the equipment lives differ by several years. So, one deficiency of payback is that it cannot factor in the useful lives of the equipment or plant it’s used to evaluate.

The implications of this are that firms may choose investments with shorter payback periods at the expense of profitability. Most capital budgeting formulas, such as net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and discounted cash flow, consider the TVM. Despite its appeal, the payback period analysis method has some significant drawbacks. The first 15 very important tips for aspiring entrepreneurs to success is that it fails to take into account the time value of money (TVM) and adjust the cash inflows accordingly. The TVM is the idea that the value of cash today will be worth more than in the future because of the present day’s earning potential. The payback period is the amount of time for a project to break even in cash collections using nominal dollars.

Most firms set a cut-off payback period, for example, three years depending on their business. In other words, in this example, if the payback comes in under three years, the firm would purchase the asset or invest in the project. If the payback took four years, it would not, because it exceeds the firm’s target of a three-year payback period.

The period of time that a project or investment takes for the present value of future cash flows to equal the initial cost provides an indication of when the project or investment will break even. The definition of the payback period for capital budgeting purposes is straightforward. The payback period represents the number of years it takes to pay back the initial investment of a capital project from the cash flows that the project produces. Firstly, it fails to consider the time value of money, as cash flow obtained in the initial years of a project is valued more highly than cash flow received later in the project’s process.

By adopting cloud accounting software like Deskera, you can track your costs, send purchase orders, overview your bills, generate expense reports, and much more – through a single, user-friendly platform. Ideally, businesses would pursue all projects and opportunities that hold potential profit and enhance their shareholder’s value. However, there’s a limit to the amount of capital and money available for companies to invest in new projects. Get instant access to video lessons taught by experienced investment bankers.

The purchase of machine would be desirable if it promises a payback period of 5 years or less. These capital projects start with a capital budget, which defines the project’s initial investment and its anticipated annual cash flows. The budget includes a calculation to show the estimated payback period, with the assumption that the project produces the expected cash flows each year. Assume that Company A has a project requiring an initial cash outlay of $3,000. The project is expected to return $1,000 each period for the next five periods, and the appropriate discount rate is 4%. The discounted payback period calculation begins with the -$3,000 cash outlay in the starting period.

For this reason, the payback period may return a positive figure, while the discounted payback period returns a negative figure. The basic method of the discounted payback period is taking the future estimated cash flows of a project and discounting them to the present value. This formula can only be used to calculate the soonest payback period; that is, the first period after which the investment has paid for itself. If the cumulative cash flow drops to a negative value some time after it has reached a positive value, thereby changing the payback period, this formula can’t be applied.

When deciding whether to invest in a project or when comparing projects having different returns, a decision based on payback period is relatively complex. The decision whether to accept or reject a project based on its payback period depends upon the risk appetite of the management. Between mutually exclusive projects having similar return, the decision should be to invest in the project having the shortest payback period. The capital project could involve buying a new plant or building or buying a new or replacement piece of equipment.

Is a Higher Payback Period Better Than a Lower Payback Period?

The table is structured the same as the previous example, however, the cash flows are discounted to account for the time value of money. As an alternative to looking at how quickly an investment is paid back, and given the drawback outline above, it may be better for firms to look at the internal rate of return (IRR) when comparing projects. In essence, the payback period is used very similarly to a Breakeven Analysis, but instead of the number of units to cover fixed costs, it considers the amount of time required to return an investment. The decision rule using the payback period is to minimize the time taken for the return on investment.

Alternative measures of “return” preferred by economists are net present value and internal rate of return. An implicit assumption in the use of payback period is that returns to the investment continue after the payback period. Payback period does not specify any required comparison to other investments or even to not making an investment.

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